Bone marrow is a semisolid substance within our bones, where blood cells such as white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets are manufactured from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In a bone marrow transplant (BMT) it is actually the HSC which are transplanted to replace damaged or diseased cells in the marrow with the cells of an apparently normal person. This is called an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). A bone marrow transplant (BMT), also called a stem cell transplant, is a procedure in which diseased or damaged bone marrow cells are replaced with healthy ones. This procedure is performed after a patient has high-dose chemotherapy or radiation. Conditions successfully treated with BMT include cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and solid tumors, as well as aplastic anemia.
Auto means self. Stem cells are removed from the patient before the high dose chemotherapy is given. After the chemotherapy, stem cells are given back intravenously.
Stem cells are obtained from the donor. The donor must have the same genetic makeup as the patient. Generally the brother or sister of the patient is most likely to be a good match. Special blood tests are done to determine if a donor is a good match.
Umblical Cord Transplant
Stem cells removed from the umbilical cord immediately after the birth of the baby. It will be stored and used as and when it is needed.